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COVID-19 Session highlights at LEPH2021

The year 2020 brought the intersection of law enforcement and public health into sharp focus: the COVID-19 pandemic, policing to support public health orders, protests, police violence, prosecutions and the delivery of public health services in a new environment.

To learn more about the impact of COVID-19 across the globe, tune into some of these sessions below:

List of sessions:

M4: African States’ police reform in the wake of COVID-19 
M10: Pandemic and protests: how police and prosecutors can promote harm reduction strategies in times of crisis
M15: Dreaming about an ideal response to mental health and suicide crises: a response to COVID-19
Tu3: An inter-agency public health and safety approach to analyzing shootings and gun crimes in a major US city during  COVID-19: perspectives from the top
Tu13: Proffered papers: Impacts of Covid-19 epidemic
W4: Implementing a public health approach to violence prevention: why a public health approach has been instrumental in responding to the “shadow pandemic” of violence during the COVID-19 pandemic
W21: “They’re out there!”: perceptions of policing during the COVID-19 pandemic
Th1: Policing and pandemics
Th4: Policing the pandemic: public health and the use of force
Th17: Proffered papers: Impacts of Covid-19
F2: An inter-agency public health and safety approach to analyzing shootings and gun crimes in a major US city during COVID-19: what the data show
F16: Prosecutorial and public health responses to COVID-19 behind bars: policies and lessons learned 

 

M4: African States’ police reform in the wake of COVID-19 

This session is currently scheduled for M4 (Day 1, Monday 22nd March at 11 AM – 11:50 AM EST)

Session description: 

Much literature has considered the impacts of colonialism through law enforcement on societies in Africa, Southeast Asia, and elsewhere. In areas in and around Nigeria, for example, local policing often did not involve violence, was informal, and was rooted in various community structures. The establishment of police forces introduced formal systems into colonies to promote and protect the economic and political interests of colonial masters. Incarceration, apartheid, and the return of economic labor (like slave catching in the United States) happened in even the most slight of African colonies, Malawi.

Police institutions in particular seem to have failed to break from their colonial pasts with devastating impact on physical and mental health. As African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights Chairperson Solomon Dersso wrote in June, after security forces in several different African countries killed civilians while enforcing COVID-19 lockdowns, “the institutional and historical disposition of security forces to resort to the unjustified use of force against the civilian population” must be removed.

As Black Lives Matter has captivated the American mindset particularly since George Floyd’s death in late May 2020, similar movements against police brutality—and the carceral criminal justice system more broadly—have sprung up or at least gained some charge from protests in the U.S. and around the world. These include abolition movements in South Africa, the Missing Voices campaign in Kenya against forced disappearances and extrajudicial killings, and Nigeria’s #EndSARS protests. This panel will discuss the historical harms of law enforcement, past and possible reforms, and strategies for concrete change that promote healthier societies.

Moderator: 

Tyler Holmes, Irish Rule of Law International (Malawi Access to Justice Programme) (Ireland)

Tyler Holmes is a programme lawyer with Irish Rule of Law’s Access to Justice Project in Lilongwe, Malawi. He works with the Malawi Police Service on matters of legal compliance, especially in pretrial detention of suspects and proper treatment of children. Before working in Malawi, Holmes volunteered with the Southern Africa Litigation Centre and was a civil litigator in the Kansas City, Missouri area. He is particularly interested in strategic litigation, criminal justice reform, and international trade and commerce.

Speakers:

  • Juliet Wanjira, Mathare Social Justice Centre (Kenya)
  • Oluseyi Kehinde, Youth Rise Nigeria


M10: Pandemic and protests: how police and prosecutors can promote harm reduction strategies in times of crisis

This session is currently scheduled for M10 (Day 1, Monday 22nd March at 1:30 PM – 2:50 PM EST)

Moderator: 

Miriam Krinsky, Fair and Just Prosecution (USA)

Speakers :

  • Karl Roberts, Policing and Criminal Justice, Western Sydney University (Australia)
  • Rachael Rollins, District Attorney, Suffolk County, Massachusetts (USA)
  • Further speakers TBA


M15: Dreaming about an ideal response to mental health and suicide crises: a response to COVID-19

This session is currently scheduled for M15 (Day 1, Monday 22nd March at 3:00 PM – 3:50 PM EST)

Session description:

COVID-19 has presented a set of challenges that have increased stress among community members, leading to increased risk for and incidence of mental health and/or suicide crises. Law enforcement agencies, as responders to these crises, have reported additional stress and strain due to the increased incidence of these crises. This presentation will outline the planning for an ideal system response to these crises that is rooted in the increase of calls due to COVID-19. The presentation will begin with an overview of the data from our community, which reflects a 17% increase in mental health/suicide crisis calls in our region since mid-March 2020. The presentation will then describe the planning process for a new, ideal system response to these crises. This description includes a discussion of our multi-disciplinary stakeholder group, which centers the voice of lived experience. We will discuss our guiding principles for the planning process as well as our logic model that is used in planning. The presentation will then provide a detailed description of our ideal response to three specific scenarios: 911 call for mental health crisis and/or suicidal ideation or attempt, emergency department visit for mental health crisis and/or suicidal ideation or attempt, and suicide death. Flowcharts for each scenario will be presented, along with a discussion of facilitators and barriers. The presentation will conclude a discussion of plans to pilot this ideal system response within our region.

Moderator:

Stephen Hargarten, Medical College of Wisconsin  (USA)

Stephen Hargarten is Professor of Emergency Medicine at the Medical College of Wisconsin, (MCW). He serves as Associate Dean of Global Health at MCW. He is an affiliate faculty of the Comprehensive Injury Center at CIC. He served as the Founding President of the Society for the Advancement of Violence and Injury Research.

Speakers:

  • Sara Kohlbeck, Medical College of Wisconsin  (USA)
  • Sarah Bassing-Sutton, N.E.W. Mental Health Connection  (USA)

Sarah Bassing-Sutton is the Community Suicide Prevention Coordinator with the Northeast Wisconsin Mental Health Connection serving Calumet, Outagamie and Winnebago Counties. Her position created through “Project Zero” is a 3 year grant funded program focused on creating system change in adult suicide prevention. Sarah has been involved in Suicide Prevention efforts since 2012 and has led the implementation of numerous community wide initiatives and programs, including an adolescent suicide prevention program in multiple local school districts. Sarah earned her Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology from UW-Oshkosh and specializes in the cultivation of strong collaborative relationships and outside of the box thinking to bring ideas into reality.



Tu3: An inter-agency public health and safety approach to analyzing shootings and gun crimes in a major US city during  COVID-19: perspectives from the top

This session is currently scheduled for Tu3 (Day 2, Tuesday 23rd March at 8:30 AM – 9:50 AM EST)

Moderator: 

Oren Gur, Policy Advisor and Director of Research and of the District Attorney’s Transparency Analytics (DATA) Lab, Philadelphia  (USA)

Speakers:

  • Erica Atwood, Strategic Initiatives for Criminal Justice and Public Safety, City of Philadelphia (USA)
  • Tom Farley, Department of Public Health (USA)
  • Keir Bradford-Grey, Defender Association (indigent defense)
  • Danielle Outlaw, Police Department (USA)
  • Larry Krasner, District Attorney’s Office (USA)


Tu13: Proffered papers: 
Impacts of Covid-19 epidemic

This session is currently scheduled for Tu13 (Day 2, Tuesday 23rd March at 2:00 PM – 2:50 PM EST)

Session description:

The presenters in this session will be discussing the impacts of the COVID-19 epidemic.

Kathleen Powell will be presenting reforms initiated by the COVID-19 pandemic in community corrections. She will present survey results documenting changes to supervision practice and agency policies implemented in Spring 2020 by adult probation and parole agencies who had to continue supervision in a way that kept officers, staff, and clients healthy and safe.

Sabrina Brown will discuss the descriptive and predictive statistical analyses that have been used by public health epidemiologists to prevent the spread of infection and disease. This study examines how third order effects of COVID-19 are contributing to a spike in shootings, crime, and homicides in Louisville Metro, Kentucky. Her study examines the statistical analyses to the Louisville Metro Police Department homicide and shooting data to understand the drastic increase in violent crimes.

Navya Tripathi will be discussing her study which builds on a previous study on drug overdose deaths and how the spread of COVID-19 has amplified the rise in drug deaths.. She will discuss her examination on the spatial correlation between drug overdose deaths and death by COVID-19 at the state level on a monthly time step.

Moderator:

Oscar Alleyne, Chief of Programs and Services, NACCHO

Speakers:

  • Kathleen Powell, Drexel University (USA)

Utilizing statistical modeling and improved technology to reduce increasing violence when police presence is decreasing due to COVID-19

Kathleen Powell is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Department of Criminology and Justice Studies. She earned her PhD from the School of Criminal Justice at Rutgers – Newark and her MS from the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Powell’s research broadly assesses the impacts of involvement with the justice system, with a focus on health and inequality over the life course.

Her dissertation studied the long-term consequences of involvement with the juvenile justice system for mental health. Dr. Powell has also worked on projects identifying the scope of fines and fees for individuals under community supervision, the collateral consequences of incarceration for labor markets and family life, and the occupational health of public defenders. Her research projects utilize both quantitative and qualitative methods.

  • Sabrina Brown, University of Kentucky  (USA)

When pandemic meets epidemic: co-location through spatial analysis of COVID 19 and drug overdose deaths 

  • Navya Tripathi, Buchholz High School (USA)


W4: Implementing a public health approach to violence prevention: why a public health approach has been instrumental in responding to the “shadow pandemic” of violence during the COVID-19 pandemic

This session is currently scheduled for W4 (Day 3, Wednesday 24th March at 10:00 AM – 10:50 AM EST)

Session description:

In 2019, the Wales Violence Prevention Unit was established with a single mission: to prevent violence in Wales through the implementation of a public health approach. The multi-agency team of public health, police, probation and voluntary sector professionals work in partnership to seek evidence on the underlying causes of violence, develop interventions based on this evidence and properly evaluate each intervention.

The development of the Wales Violence Prevention Unit rests on a long history of police and public health partnership with a focus on addressing vulnerability and the root causes of violence and crime. Numerous programs and policies such as the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Hub (ACE Support Hub Cymru, 2020), the Early Action Together Program (2020), the Cardiff Model (Crime and Security Research Institute, 2020), South Wales Violence Surveillance System (VSS) (Barton et al., 2016), and the Welsh Government Future Generations Act (Welsh Government, 2015) have all built the international case for police and public health partnership through a trauma-informed and child-centred lens.

The COVID-19 pandemic required the newly established Unit to re-focus its efforts. Experts from across the globe warned of the adverse consequences of the COVID-19 lockdown on violence in the home, with the United Nations describing it as a shadow pandemic. In response, the Unit capitalised on an extensive history of partnership between policing and public health to respond to and prevent violence, and in doing so, protect the most vulnerable in Wales during this uncertain time.

Throughout the lockdown restrictions, the Wales Violence Prevention Unit monitored levels of violence in Wales through the collection and analysis of data from partners across Wales and England. The Unit worked with partners to identify emerging trends and provide recommendations based on this information.

The session will present this ground-breaking work currently being delivered across Wales using a public health approach to violence prevention, incorporating the powerful evidence from the COVID-19 violence monitoring and the recent Year One Evaluation of the Unit, which highlights how it has begun to create system-level changes in violence prevention, encouraging organisations to focus upon violence prevention as a public health issue.

Moderator: 

Jonathan Drake, Wales Violence Prevention Unit 

Speakers:

  • Daniel Jones, Wales Violence Prevention Unit

Daniel Jones has 20 years experience in Community Safety and has specialised in preventing violence throughout his career. A Criminology graduate, with experience of working in Probation, the Crown Prosecution Service and Local Authorities, Daniel is currently seconded into the Wales Violence Prevention Unit from the Office for the Police and Crime Commissioner for South Wales. Daniel successfully coordinated an all Wales bid for the UK Home Office Early Intervention Youth Fund in 2018 and subsequently managed the resulting Wales Serious Violence Prevention Project. The £1.2 million programme took and early intervention approach to tackling serious youth violence across the 4 Welsh Police Forces. Furthermore Daniel coordinated the successful application for a UK Home Office Violence Reduction Unit grant that resulted in South Wales Police working with partners across the whole of Wales top establish the Wales Violence Prevention Unit.

  • Lara Snowden, Public Health Wales

Lara joined the World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre for Investment in Health & Well-being at Public Health Wales in 2019 as Violence Prevention Programme Lead. In this role, Lara was one of the founding-members of the Wales Violence Prevention Unit and now leads public health activity within the unit. This involves strategic leadership, research, evaluation and advocacy for a public health approach to violence prevention both nationally and internationally. She manages a multi-agency team of policing and public health specialists and researchers. Prior to this role, Lara worked for Public Health England and in local authority public health in the UK, and in international development overseas. She has an MSc in Public Health from the University of the West of England, an MSc in Gender and International Relations from the University of Bristol, and has undertaken the WHO Mentorship in Violence and Injury Prevention (MENTOR-VIP Programme).

  • Emma Barton, Public Health Wales

Emma joined Public Health Wales in 2015 as a Public Health Researcher and has over fifteen years’ experience working in a research capacity in, education, criminology and public health having previously worked as a Senior Research Consultant working with young offenders. Emma has an MSc in Forensic Psychology and a BA (Hons) in Psychology and Applied Social Science.

Emma is the Violence Prevention Outcomes Manager for the Wales Violence Prevention Unit. Her role involves building a data-led evidence base for violence prevention and trauma-informed practice and extending the Violence Surveillance and analysis system in to an All Wales approach. Previously, Emma led a Public Health Wales research team to deliver a number of research and evaluation projects on the National Adverse Childhood Experiences Approach to Policing Vulnerability Programme and the Early Intervention & Prevention Project.

Projects included an evaluation of a structured multi-agency, early intervention approach to vulnerability with neighbourhood policing teams’; An evaluation of the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE)-Informed Whole School Approach; A research study looking at understanding ACEs in the offender population; and an evaluation of CBT resilience and self-care well-being training among police. In addition, as the current research lead on developing the Wales Violence Intelligence for Prevention Hub Emma has a great deal of experience and insight into the processes involved in establishing new initiatives within a multi-disciplinary, multi-agency research environment alongside knowledge of violence and health related data.



W21: “They’re out there!”: perceptions of policing during the COVID-19 pandemic

This session is currently scheduled for W21 (Day 3, Wednesday 24th March at 4:00 PM – 4:50 PM EST)

Moderator:

 Tia Dickerson, Howard University (USA)

Speakers:

  • Marie-Claude Jipguep-Akhtar, Howard University  (USA)
  • Denae Bradley, Howard University (USA)


Th1: Policing and pandemics

This session is currently scheduled for T1 (Day 4, Thursday 24th March at 8:30 AM – 9:50 AM  EST)

Moderator: 

Karl Roberts 

Speakers:

TBA



Th4: Policing the pandemic: public health and the use of force

This session is currently scheduled for Th4 (Day 4, Thursday 24th March at 10:00 AM – 10:50 AM EST)

Session description: 

In response to the COVID-19 world-wide pandemic, set to cause over one million deaths in 2020, governments enacted public health laws and regulations designed to save lives. Inevitably, despite efforts at education and persuasion, not everyone obeyed these public health laws. Those who refused put themselves at risk and, importantly, raised the risks of virus transmission to innocent others. Governments then faced the challenge of enforcing compliance. Most often they turned to the police, that arm of government authorised, trained, and equipped to enforce laws against citizens who refuse to do what the government has required.

At the same time, in 2020, a growing progressive view was that policing must be reimagined by withdrawing police from everything but preventing and investigating serious crime. According to this perspective, policing should be abolished, defunded, or at least downsized as the only way of reducing the harms that police cause, especially to vulnerable people, poor people, and people of colour.

This paper reflects on the apparent contradiction in these contemporary events and agendas. Why is it that the police seem to get drawn into so many of society’s chronic and emergent problems? Specifically, in regard to public health, should the police be in or out?

Moderator: 

Auke van Dijk, Netherlands National Police  (Netherlands)

Auke J. van Dijk is senior strategist for the executive team of the Dutch police, engaged in long-term strategy and the connection of deep strategy with current (crisis) decisions. His academic background is in International Relations Theory and International Political Economy. He has worked at the Dutch Organization for Applied Research on the consequences for government of the network and information society. He has been senior advisor at the Dutch Council for Public Administration, a formal strategic independent think tank advising the Cabinet and Parliament; his work was mainly on security issues. He was senior advisor to the independent ministerial committee advising government on the development of the Dutch Intelligence and Security Services. He was a member of the committee – set up by the Council of Chief Police Commissioners – which developed a new vision and strategy for policing. He was cofounder of the Agora police & security, which is an experimental space for thinking and debate among practitioners and academics. Next to the future of policing in the context of privatisation and digitalisation, his focus is on vulnerable groups, marginalized communities, policing diversity, public protection, multi-agency (including leadership) and the further development and organization of police – academic relations.

Since 2012 he is been a member of the advisory board of the Centre for Law Enforcement and Public Health (CLEPH) in Melbourne (Australia). He was heavily involved in organizing the second & third International Conference on Law Enforcement and Public Health (LEPH 2014 & 2016, Amsterdam) and was a member of the program committee for the conferences in Toronto (2018), Edinburgh (2019) and Philadelphia (2021). He is a member of the board of the Global Law Enforcement and Public Health Association (https://gleapha.wildapricot.org/) since 2017.

Speakers: 

  • Hannatu Janada Dimas (Nigeria)

Dr. Hannatu Janada Dimas is a physician, public health specialist, field epidemiologist and the pioneer head of the public health department of the Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC). She is currently a Medical Officer/Epidemiologist – Chief Superintendent of Corps in the Crisis Management Directorate of the Corps. Her position has not deterred her from volunteering to participate in humanitarian activities whenever and wherever she gets a chance to do so.

Dr. Dimas has a Medical degree (MBBS) from the University of Maiduguri. She also has a Master’s in Public Health (MPH) from Ahmadu Bello University Zaria in conjunction with the US Centers for Disease Control, after passing through a two-year in-service field-based training Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (NFELTP).

Dr. Dimas is a researcher with focus on communicable diseases, she has special interests in the Malaria research, immunization, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance and risk communication. As a law enforcement officer, she has a bias for gender-based issues as well as substance misuse.

She is a fellow of the Institute of Disaster Management and Safety Science, the Chartered Institute of Risk Management of Nigeria and a member of the International Society of Substance Use Professionals (Nigeria Chapter). She has participated in and facilitated numerous national public health missions, including immunization campaigns, outbreak investigations, and other epidemiological researches amongst others over the past seven years. She has served on various national committees with respect to Disaster Management and Emergency response. Dr. Dimas is a skilled facilitator and a mentor to several grassroots public health officials and epidemiology trainees nationwide. She has facilitated/led basic epidemiology trainings for grassroots disease surveillance officers and other public health officials in Nigeria.

She has presented papers at various national and international scientific conferences.

She is married and has 4 lovely children. She likes to play badminton, travel and spend time with children.

Law Enforcement’s role in preventing epidemics: enforcing communicable disease quarantine policies 

  • Susan Parker, University of Michigan (USA)

Susan Parker is a doctoral candidate in Health Policy at the University of Michigan. Her research interests are in gun violence, policing and machine learning. Parker holds an MS in Analytics and a Master in Public Policy from the University of Chicago. Prior to commencing her doctoral studies, Parker was the senior data scientist at a startup focusing on violence reduction and has worked as a data scientist in healthcare.



Th17: Proffered papers: Impacts of Covid-19

This session is currently scheduled for Th17 (Day 4, Thursday 24th March at 3:00 Pm to 3:50 PM EST)

Session description:

The presenters in this session will be discussing the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic.

Annie Vartanian will be presenting on COVID-19 and how it effects anxiety depression by highlighting the key factors contributing to the increase in mental health disorders and their associated prescribed medications, due to COVID-19. She will also present a recommended policy that prevention and intervention of COVID-19 related depression and anxiety must become a global priority, with the development of sustainable and sufficient mental health services.

Yasmeen Krameddine will discuss how the pandemic has generated a variety of unexpected and unique obstacles for police organizations worldwide including added responsibilities and tasks related to the COVID-19 pandemic adding additional stressors to the law enforcement role. She will discuss results from her study that aims to understand the effect that COVID-19 has had on the mental health of a Canadian Police Organization.

Niyazi Ekici will present discuss how U.S. government agencies, particularly police departments have undertaken various responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Results of an assessment of COVID-19’s effects on police agencies in Illinois, Missouri, and Ohio that used online surveys of local and state police departments will be discussed.

Abstracts:

Niyazi Ekici: The Impact of Covid-19 on the Police Departments: Evidence from Illinois, Missouri, and Ohio

The U.S. government agencies have undertaken various responses to the Covid-19 pandemic. Among government agencies particularly impacted were police departments. An assessment of Covid-19’s effects on police agencies in Illinois (N=73), Missouri (N=30) and Ohio (N=97) was undertaken using an online survey conducted on a total of 200 local and state police departments between June 1, 2020 and July 30, 2020. Results indicated statistically significant decreases in in-person responses to calls for services, suspension of in-service trainings and police academies, decreases in community policing activities, and reduces in types of enforcement actions. Though departments utilized new personal safety precautions for their staff and encouraged employees to work remotely, and modified their roll call briefing procedures, there have been statistically significantly variant results among the three states that researched. The differences and similarities among the three states are discussed.

Changes in mental health symptomology and resilience in a Canadian police organization: The Toll of COVID-19   

  • Yasmeen Krameddine, University of Alberta  (Canada)

Dr. Yasmeen Krameddine is an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Alberta. She graduated with a Ph.D. in Psychiatry and has made it her life’s mission to create practical training to make police-public interactions safe. She delivers the only evidence-based de-escalation training in the world. Based on ten years of scientific research, her training continues to be delivered to Police Officers, University Security, Bus Operators, Paramedics, Housing employees, and Government Agencies across Canada, the USA, and the Netherlands. Additionally, through her research, she noticed that if we can minimize negative interactions with the public, we can also minimize trauma and prevent Post Traumatic Stress Injuries. Through this realization, she is piloting an evidence-informed online training program with the goal of increasing mental health resilience in police organizations.

The impact of Covid-19 on the police departments: evidence from Illinois, Missouri, and Ohio 

  • Niyazi Ekici, Western Illinois University, Department of Law Enforcement and Justice

Dr. Ekici earned a B.A. in Security Studies, an M.A. in Political History, an M.A. in Criminal Justice from Rutgers University and a Ph.D. from Rutgers University, School of Criminal Justice. He has 18 years policing experience at different ranks and policing units including crime investigation, terrorism, police training and background investigations.

Dr. Ekici lectures about theories of crime, community policing, contemporary policing methods, public and private security, terrorism, theories in sociology, criminal justice systems, statistics, and research methods at undergraduate and graduate levels.



F2: An inter-agency public health and safety approach to analyzing shootings and gun crimes in a major US city during COVID-19: what the data show

This session is currently scheduled for F2 (Day 5, Friday 25th March at 8:30 AM – 9:50 AM EST)

Moderator: 

Oren Gur, Policy Advisor and Director of Research and of the District Attorney’s Transparency Analytics (DATA) Lab, Philadelphia  (USA)

Speakers:

TBA



F16:Prosecutorial and public health responses to COVID-19 behind bars: policies and lessons learned  

This session is currently scheduled for F16 (Day 5, Friday 25th March at 2:00 PM – 3:50 PM EST)

Speakers:

  • Miriam Aroni Krinsky

Miriam Aroni Krinsky is the Executive Director of Fair and Just Prosecution, a nonprofit that supports and inter-connects recently elected leaders of prosecutors’ offices committed to new thinking and innovation. She has spent the past few decades working in public service, justice system reform and academia, including 15 years as a federal prosecutor — both in Los Angeles and on a strike force in the Mid-Atlantic region.

In 2012, Miriam served as the Executive Director of Los Angeles County’s Citizens’ Commission on Jail Violence, a high-level Commission appointed to investigate allegations of excessive force by Los Angeles Sheriff’s deputies in L.A. County jails. She has taught at the UCLA School of Public Policy and at Loyola and Southwestern Law Schools, served as a policy consultant on youth violence prevention, juvenile justice, and justice reform issues for The California Endowment and spent five years as the Executive Director of the Children’s Law Center of Los Angeles – a legal services organization representing over 20,000 abused and neglected children. She also served as President of the Los Angeles County Bar Association, on the Los Angeles City Ethics Commission (serving as Commission President for three years), on the California Judicial Council and California State Bar Board of Trustees (by appointment of the California Supreme Court) and on the American Law Institute Sentencing Project Advisory group and the Principles of Policing Advisory Group. She has testified before national and state legislative bodies, authored over 50 articles, and lectured nationwide on criminal law, law enforcement oversight and reform, juvenile justice, and sentencing issues.

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